Four-by-four driving, 6th edn      ISBN 978-0-957585-6-6 Author: Tom Sheppard

Articulation – again. Articulation is also covered elsewhere (eg. book Sec 3.4 and Jimny shot this website p1/6) but is a fundamental factor in the performance of a 4x4 off-road. And – especially in one lacking cross-axle wheel-spin control (traction control or locking diff) – is a basic cause of probably 90% of all failed traction situations: the inability to put four wheels on the ground and get each wheel to contribute to forward motion of the vehicle.

Cadence braking – sheer magic. Best of all, employ ‘cadence braking’ technique – repeated jabbing of the brake pedal with your foot, quite gently, as fast as you can so that the wheel never gets a chance to lock. It’s a kind of manual ABS. Though it takes will-power to take your foot off the brakes to do this when you are trying to slow down, cadence braking is remarkably effective.